New article about why CICO is wrong and terrible and bad:
1) Calories in is very difficult to measure - the 4, 4, 9 calories/gram for carbs, proteins and fat was measured/derived in the late 1800s and has never been updated.
2) Package labelling is off on average 18%
3) CICO does not take into account how food is digested and absorbed; interestingly, simple sugars can be uptaken at 30 cal/min while complex carbohydrates can only be absorbed 2 cal/min; the impact of this on insulin and the resultant metabolic pathways is vastly different in each case
4) The manner of food preparation can impact the amount of available calories; even something like cooking pasta and letting it cool can drastically change the amount of available (digestible) calories; same with cooking rice with coconut oil and letting it cool.
5) Genetics, microbiome and even small intestine length varies from person to person, so calorie uptake of the same foods is not equal across subjects.
6) There are other points, but the above was most interesting to me.
In the end, I think the advice at the end was to eat when you're hungry and only when you're hungry, eat more whole foods, eat less processed foods and don't eat treats every day.
https://www.1843magazine.com/features/d ... he-calorie